Additional References for CAM Research

Issues in CAM research

  • Fonnebo V, Grimsgaard S, Walach H, Ritenbaugh C, Norheim AJ, MacPherson H, Lewith G, Launso¸ L, Koithan M, Falkenberg T, Boon H, Aickin M. Researching complementary and alternative treatments–the gatekeepers are not at home. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2007; 11(7):7.
  • Hammerschlag R, Zwickey H. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: back to basics. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 May;12(4):349–50.
  • Zollman C, MacPherson H. The challenges of interpreting and applying the evidence for CAM and Integrated Medicine. J Holistic Healthcare, 2009; 6(1): 16–21.

Research Methodology

  • Aickin M. The importance of early phase research. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 May;13(4):447–50.
  • Coulter ID, Khorsan R. Is health services research the Holy Grail of complementary and alternative medicine research? Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Jul–Aug;14(4):40–5. Review.
  • Horn SD, Gassaway J. Practice–based evidence study design for comparative effectiveness research. Med Care 2007;45(10 Suppl 2):S50–7
  • MacPherson H. “Pragmatic clinical trials”. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2004; 12: 134–140
  • Nahin RL. Use of the best case series to evaluate complementary and alternative therapies for cancer: a systematic review. Semin Oncol. 2002 Dec;29(6):552–62.


  • Finniss DG, Kaptchuk TJ, Miller F, Benedetti F. Biological, clinical, and ethical advances of placebo effects. Lancet. 2010 Feb 20;375(9715):686–95.
  • Kaptchuk TJ, Kelley JM, Conboy LA, et al. Components of the Placebo Effect: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. BMJ. Online publication April 2008.
  • Moerman DE, Jonas WB. Deconstructing the placebo effect and finding the meaning response. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Mar 19;136(6):471–6.


  • Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat Report. 2008 Dec 10;(12):1–23.
  • Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, Norlock FE, Calkins DR, Delbanco TL. Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jan 28;328(4):246–52.
  • Nahin RL, Barnes PM, Stussman BJ, Bloom B. Costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and frequency of visits to CAM practitioners: United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat Report. 2009 Jul 30;(18):1–14.
  • Nahin RL, Pontzer CH, Chesney MA. Racing toward the integration of complementary and alternative medicine: a marathon or a sprint? Health Aff (Millwood). 2005 Jul–Aug;24(4):991–3.
  • Walji R, Boon H, Barnes J, Austin Z, Welsh S, Baker GR. Consumers of natural health products: natural-born pharmacovigilantes? BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Feb 25;10:8.

Patient-Centered Care

  • Koithan M, Verhoef M, Bell IR, White M, Mulkins A, Ritenbaugh C. The process of whole person healing: “unstuckness” and beyond. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jul–Aug;13(6):659–68.


  • Verhoef MJ, Vanderheyden LC, Dryden T, Mallory D, Ware MA. Evaluating complementary and alternative medicine interventions: in search of appropriate patient-centered outcome measures. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:6–38.

Integrative Medicine

During the past decade, education programs in integrative medicine have been established at allopathic medical schools around the country. CAM and allopathic practitioners have collaborated to set up independent integrative medicine clinics. They have also established conferences, both public and professional, to address the emerging fields that integrative medicine has proliferated.

The Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine, a collaboration of 44 highly esteemed academic medical centers, defines integrative medicine as: “The practice of medicine that reaffirms the importance of the relationship between practitioner and patient, focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, healthcare professionals and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing.” (2)

  • Heber D. An integrative view of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan;91(1):280S-283S. Epub 2009 Nov 18.
  • McDonough–Means SI, Kreitzer MJ, Bell IR. Fostering a healing presence and investigating its mediators. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10 Suppl 1:S25–41.
  • Rakel DP, Hoeft TJ, Barrett BP, Chewning BA, Craig BM, Niu M. Practitioner empathy and the duration of the common cold. Fam Med. 2009 Jul-Aug;41(7):494–501.