Energy Medicine

“Energy therapies involve the use of energy fields. They are of two types, biofield therapies and bioelectromagnetic-based therapies.” (1)

  • Jonas WB, Crawford CC. Science and spiritual healing: a critical review of spiritual healing, “energy” medicine, and intentionality. Alternat Therap. 2003;9(2):56–61

Biofield Therapies

“Biofield therapies are intended to affect energy fields that purportedly surround and penetrate the human body. The existence of such fields has not yet been scientifically proven. Some forms of energy therapy manipulate biofields by applying pressure and/or manipulating the body by placing the hands in, or through, these fields. Examples include qi gong, Reiki, and Therapeutic Touch.” (1)

  • Rubik B. The biofield hypothesis: its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Dec;8(6):703–17.


  • Hartwell, B, Brewitt, B. The Efficacy of Reiki Hands On Healing: Improvements in Adrenal, Spleen and Nervous Function as Quantified by Electro-Dermal Screening. Alternative Therapies Magazine, 1997; 3(4): 89.\
  • Miles P, True G. Reiki-review of a biofield therapy history, theory, practice, and research. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2003;9(2):62–72.


  • Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. External qigong for pain conditions: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Pain 2007;8(11):827–831.
  • Rogers CE, Larkey LK, Keller C. A review of clinical trials of tai chi and qigong in older adults. West J Nurs Res 2009;31(2):245–279.

Taiji (Tai Chi)

  • Song R, Roberts BL, Lee E-O,Lam P, Bae S–C. A randomized study of the effects of Tai Chi on muscle strength, bone mineral density, and fear of falling in women with osteoarthritis. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16(3):227–233.
  • Wayne PM, Krebs DE, Wolf SL, Gill–Body KM, Scarborough D, McGibbon CA, et al. Can Tai Chi improve vestibulopathic postural control? Archives of Physical and Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2004;85:142–152.
  • Yeh GY, Wang C, Wayne PM, Phillips R. Tai chi exercise for patients with cardiovascular conditions and risk factors: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2009;29(3):152–60.

Therapeutic touch

  • Kiernan J. The experience of therapeutic touch in the lives of five postpartum women. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2002; 27(1):47–53
  • Manville JA, Bowen JE, Benham G. Effect of healing touch on stress perception and biological correlates. Holistic Nurs Pract. 2008;22(2):103–110
  • Meehan TC. Therapeutic touch and postoperative pain: a Rogerian research study. Nurs Sci Quart. 1993;6(2):69-78
  • Movaffaghi Z, Hsanpoor M, Farsi M, et al. Effects of therapeutic touch on blood hemoglobin and hematocrit level. J Holist Nurs. 2006;24(1):41–48


  • Bower JE, Woolery A, Sternlieb B, et al. Yoga for cancer patients and survivors. Cancer Control. 2005;12(3):165–171.
  • Khalsa SBS. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: a bibliometric analysis of published research studies. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2004;48(3):269–285.
  • Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Richardson J. Yoga for depression: the research evidence. J Affect Disord. 2005;89(1-3):13–24


  • McCraty R, Atkinson M, Bradley RT. Electrophysiological evidence of intuition: part 1. The surprising role of the heart. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10(1):133–43.

Bioelectromagnetic-Based Therapies

“Bioelectromagnetic–based therapies involve the unconventional use of electromagnetic fields, such as pulsed fields, magnetic fields, or alternating–current or direct–current fields.” (1)

  • Colbert AP, Wahbeh H, Harling N, Connelly E, Schiffke HC, Forsten C, Gregory WL, Markov MS, Souder JJ, Elmer P, King V. Static magnetic field therapy: a critical review of treatment parameters. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009 Jun;6(2):133–9.
  • Ahn AC, Colbert AP, Anderson BJ, Martinsen OG, Hammerschlag R, Cina S, Wayne PM, Langevin HM. Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: a systematic review. Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 May;29(4):245–56.