Manipulative and Body-Based Practices

“Manipulative and body–based practices in CAM are based on manipulation and/or movement of one or more parts of the body. Some examples include chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, and massage.” (1)

  • Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Deyo RA, et al. A review of the evidence for the effectiveness, safety, and cost of acupuncture, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation for back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;138(11):898–907.
  • Liptan GL. Fascia: A missing link in our understanding of the pathology of fibromyalgia. J Body Mov Ther 2010;14(1):3–12.

Chiropractic, Osteopathic Manipulation

  • Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Leiniger B, Triano J. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010, 18:3doi:10.1186/1746–1340–18–3
  • Haldeman S, Underwood M. Commentary on the United Kingdom evidence report about the effectiveness of manual therapies Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010, 18:4doi:10.1186/1746–1340–18–4
  • Kaptchuk TJ, Eisenberg DM. Chiropractic: origins, controversies, and contributions. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1998;158(20):2215–2224.
  • Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink C. Frequency and characteristics of side effects of spinal manipulative therapy. Spine. 1997;22(4):435–440.


  • Corbin L. Safety and efficacy of massage therapy for patients with cancer. Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center. 2005;12(3):158–164.
  • Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Hawkes RJ, et al. Randomized trial of therapeutic massage for chronic neck pain. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2009;25(3):233–238.
  • Field T. Massage therapy effects. American Psychologist. 1998;53(12):1270–1281.
  • Furlan AD, Imamura M, Dryden T, et al. Massage for low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008;(4):CD001929. Accessed on November 25, 2008.